Nulliparity, vegetarianism, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine all have been linked to an earlier age of natural menopause (ANM), while parity, prior use of oral contraceptives, and Japanese ethnicity have all been linked to a later ANM. Long-term morbidity and mortality can be affected by ANM, so it is crucial to pinpoint modifiable risk factors, such as dietary and lifestyle choices.
Early ANM increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, while delayed menopause increases endometrial and breast cancer risk. Although research into the link between nutrition and ANM is limited, what little there is suggests that a diet high in total calories, fruits, and proteins can slow the progression of ANM, while a diet heavy in polyunsaturated fats can hasten it. An arkansas city ks women’s health clinic can help in understanding how menopause work.
It has been observed that there is a correlation between delayed menopause and:
- Increased life expectancy and decreased death from all causes.
- Cancers of the breast, uterus, and ovaries are more likely to develop.
- Osteoporosis and fractures are less likely to occur.
- The chance of developing cardiovascular disorders such as ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis decreases, leading to a lower risk of death overall.
Women who have a higher body mass index (BMI) at age 20,21,22, who gain moderate-to-high amounts of weight during midlife 22,23, and who engage in regular exercise and increased physical activity during leisure time 22,24 have a later menopause and a longer reproductive lifespan; however, rapid weight loss or intense exercise hastens ANM by reducing estrogen levels. There is a lack of research into the connection between menopause and healthy weight gain and exercise.
Conditions Of Life
ANM is affected by various behavioral or lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and drinking coffee or tea. Smoking consistently has an adverse effect on ANM, speeding up the onset of menopause by 1.5-2 years. Cigarette smoking causes menopause because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons poison the ovarian follicles. Smokers have a faster rate of drug metabolism. Therefore, estrogen is processed more quickly in the liver; also, smoking has an antiestrogenic impact. The influence of secondhand smoke on ANM has not been adequately studied. Research has shown that the shrinkage of ovarian follicles has a dosage response, with heavy smokers experiencing menopausal symptoms earlier than nonsmokers.
Numerous studies have examined how diet affects sex hormone levels and reproductive lifespan in animal models, but big prospective studies in humans are lacking. Conflicting findings between studies on dietary variables and ANM highlight the need for additional research. The well-known Dutch famine of 1944–1945 demonstrates that calorie restriction, especially in young children, reduces ANM. ANM is affected by dietary factors because of how they affect serum estradiol levels. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables protect ovarian follicles from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, allowing for a longer reproductive lifespan and later onset of menopause.