The glycaemia is a term that refers to our levels of glucose in the blood, which must be at levels considered healthy to avoid possible negative effects derived for the health. In this sense, some people such as patients with diabetes need to regularly control their blood glucose levels.
People with diabetes have an easier time for glucose levels to increase rapidly in the body. This is mainly due to the low production or poor use of insulin by the body, which is the substance responsible for regulating glucose in cells.
Therefore, glycaemia is an analysis that is usually performed to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood. This analysis often allows diagnosing prediabetes or diabetes mellitus.
In addition, patients with diabetes must constantly monitor blood glucose levels to avoid health complications due to hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) and hypoglycemia (low glucose levels).
Factors that alter blood glucose levels in the body
According to the professionals at 'Sanitas', the normal values of glycaemia in the body range from 70 mg/dl and 105 mg/dl. On the other hand, in young children, levels between 40 mg /dl and 100 mg/dl.
Thus, an episode of hypoglycemia is considered when the values are lower than 20-50mg/dl; while hyperglycemia occurs in cases of levels higher than 128 mg/dl. In any case, it is the task of a medical specialist to assess the situation of each patient based on their characteristics.
Under normal conditions, the main factor that affects blood glucose levels in the body is food. Following a specific diet can lead to an increase in blood glucose values or, on the contrary, a decrease in them.
In the same way, physical exercise is an activity with great influence in this regard. Normally, performing physical exercise is adequate to control glucose levels, in addition to allowing us to maintain an adequate weight.
However, excessive physical exercise can cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, physical activity must be adapted to the health situation of each person based on different parameters.
In addition to diet and physical exercise, there are other factors that can alter blood glucose levels:
- Consumption of alcohol and analgesics,
- Stress due to acute illnesses, such as heart attack, stroke or general anesthesia.
- Pregnancy, in which a transient alteration of blood glucose levels may occur; although sometimes it can become permanent.
- Treatments with intravenous serum, since they contain dextrose (a type of sugar).
- Antihypertensive drugs, female hormones or antidepressant drugs.
Factors that influence hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
There are certain health situations that can cause an increase in blood glucose levels. That is, hyperglycemia may appear more easily in the following cases:
- Mellitus diabetes.
- Kidney diseases.
- Acute pancreatitis.
- Cushing's syndrome.
- Pancreatic tumors.
For its part, hypoglycemia (reduced blood glucose) can occur more frequently in the case of liver disease, excess insulin in people with diabetes, excessive diets, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism or insulinoma.